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The Sutra of the Lotus Flower of the Wonderful Law
Chapter 21
The Divine Power of the Tathagata (1)

This is the 113th installment of a detailed commentary on the Threefold Lotus Sutra
by the founder of Rissho Kosei-kai, Rev. Nikkyo Niwano.

 
 

INTRODUCTION This chapter is one of the most important of the twenty-eight chapters of the Lotus Sutra because in it culminate the two doctrines of the realm of trace and the realm of origin. It also clearly teaches that these two doctrines are not separate, even though they seem different. This chapter particularly emphasizes that they are essentially one in every respect.

In the realm of trace, Shakyamuni revealed the aim and content of the teachings that he had preached during the forty-odd years following his attainment of supreme enlightenment. They are primarily philosophical and ethical teachings, emphasizing the formation of all things in the world, the laws by which they move, and teaches that human beings are never exempt from those fundamental laws, what human beings ought to be, and ideal human relationships.

In the realm of origin, Shakyamuni revealed that the Buddha is not only Shakyamuni the World-honored One himself, who appeared in this world as a human being, but is also the Eternal Original Buddha, who gives life to all things.

In referring to the realm of origin, the Buddha teaches that to be finally liberated we must realize that we are one with the Eternal Original Buddha, and all human beings must reach this stage of liberation for the sake of true world peace.

We can clearly distinguish between the realms of trace and origin in the following way. The realm of trace includes the teachings of Shakyamuni, who appears on earth. The realm of origin manifests the Eternal Original Buddha, that is, "nonarising" and "nonperishing." The doctrine of the realm of trace is about how people should live and what human relationships should be like. Because human relationships should be based on true wisdom more than anything else, the realm of trace can be said to be the teaching of wisdom.

In the realm of origin, the manifestation of the Eternal Original Buddha, who gives life to all things in the universe, is preached. Because the manifestation of the Eternal Original Buddha represents the great benevolence and compassion of the Original Buddha, we may call the realm of origin a teaching of benevolence and compassion.

It is necessary for us thus to distinguish between these two realms when we study in depth the teachings of the Lotus Sutra.

Analysis is necessary when we study anything in detail. To analyze means to divide a thing into its components and examine its structure, its elements, its meaning, its functions, and so on. However, if we go deeper into mere analysis and conclude our study only with analysis, we have only studied something halfway, and our study will not come alive. Western scholarship, in its methodology and way of thinking, has a regrettable tendency of being satisfied with analysis, and because of this, subtle philosophy is unable to save human beings, and advanced medicine is able to cure only individual illnesses without being able to improve human health as a whole.

In contrast, the Eastern way of thinking seeks to broadly grasp the true nature of things. This way of thinking is founded on the belief that one is identical with all and conversely that all is identical with one.

In this day and age when Western civilization is reaching a stalemate, this Eastern way of thinking is attracting attention and esteem from people around the world. We ought to appreciate anew the fact that the most profound locus of Eastern thought is in the Buddha Dharma.

At any rate, once we have carefully analyzed a thing in order to study it in depth, it is absolutely necessary to unite all its aspects. It is only when we have done this that we have finally grasped the whole and been able to ascertain the truth that pervades the whole. This function is called synthesis, and we complete the study of a subject only if we follow analysis with this synthesis.

The same also applies to the study of the Lotus Sutra. Up to this point we have studied the Buddha's teachings by analyzing them in order to understand them correctly. If we stop with analysis, unless we are geniuses, the teachings will remain scattered in bits and pieces and jumbled in our heads, and it cannot be said that we have achieved true understanding.

We should not study the Lotus Sutra for the sake of learning alone. We should learn for the sake of true liberation, to attain buddhahood. Therefore, it is not enough to understand the sutra intellectually. We cannot be truly liberated, or liberate humanity, unless we proceed from understanding to faith and reach that mental state in which there is a complete union of understanding and faith.

In that sense, in this chapter, the Buddha reviews all his teachings in the preceding twenty chapters and declares that a single truth permeates them. In this chapter, it becomes apparent that the doctrine of the realm of trace is at one with the doctrine of the realm of origin. When we embrace the two realms as a harmonious whole, our devotion becomes stronger and more secure.

Reading through this chapter, however, it may seem that it states no such important teaching, but only the mysterious and incomprehensible divine power of the Tathagata. That is what makes the chapter hard to understand. As I explained many times before, the great compassionate mind of the Tathagata is symbolized by these mysterious phenomena, and each of these phenomena implies the complete union of the realms of trace and origin.

Though I must resort once again to analysis, I will explain the meaning of the ten divine powers of the Tathagata according to the interpretations accepted by Buddhist scholars since ancient times.

For this reason, the discussion will become rather specialized, and I will use difficult terminology. But the reader should not be put off by this. Such terms are merely skillful means to help us in understanding these teachings, and needless to say, our ultimate goal is to clearly understand the spirit of this chapter.

In the final section of chapter 20, the World-honored One spoke as follows:

"Therefore let his practitioners, / After the Buddha's extinction, / On hearing such a sutra as this, / Not conceive doubt or perplexity. / But let them wholeheartedly / Publish abroad this sutra, / And age by age meeting buddhas, / They will speedily accomplish the Buddha Way."

This chapter begins with the words of the innumerable bodhisattvas who reply out of their great emotion, after hearing the Buddha's preaching as above.

TEXT At that time the bodhisattva-mahasattvas, equal to the atoms of a [great-]thousandfold world, who had sprung up from the earth, all before the Buddha with one mind folded their hands, looked up into his noble countenance, and spoke to the Buddha, saying: "World-honored One! After the extinction of the Buddha, in whatever lands the separate embodiment of the World-honored One exists, wherever he is extinct, we will widely preach this sutra. Wherefore? [Because] we also ourselves have obtained this truly pure Great Dharma, we wish to receive and keep, read, recite, explain, copy, and make offerings to it."

COMMENTARY Equal to the atoms of a [great-]thousandfold world. This means that the gathering of bodhisattvas was as great as the number of atoms that would be produced if a thousand worlds were ground into powder. That is, countless bodhisattvas assembled.
• Who had sprung up from the earth. This is explained in detail in chapter 15, "Springing Up out of the Earth" (see the July-September 2009 issue of Dharma World).
• In whatever lands the separate embodiment of the World-honored One exists, wherever he is extinct. Because the Original Buddha, as the Dharma-body neither arising nor perishing, takes no definite form, the separate embodiments appear incarnated in physical forms, each possessing both individual characteristics and affinities with a particular country. In other words, each of the separate embodiments is born in a certain country and becomes extinct there as a result of appropriate causes and conditions. Accordingly he embodies the distinctive qualities and typical sentiments of that country's people.

That is why the expressly stated phrase "in whatever lands the separate embodiment of the World-honored One exists, wherever he is extinct" seems to imply the notion that all the separate embodiments of the Buddha have both individual characteristics and distinguishing features of a particular locale.
• Truly pure Great Dharma. This refers to the true and absolutely pure teaching of the Great Vehicle, needless to say, the Lotus Sutra.

These bodhisattvas who had sprung up from the earth were regarded as having greater virtues than the Bodhisattva Manjushri and the Bodhisattva Maitreya, who were originally of this saha world, and here they vow before the Buddha to impart the Buddha's teachings widely. They accompany their pledge with an explanation of why they would impart his teachings widely, a reason with profound meaning.

They explain that because they have obtained this Great Dharma, they wish to make it truly their own, continually learn from it, preach it on behalf of others, copy it, and make offerings to it.

Offerings to the Buddha or the Dharma are expressions of devotion to and gratitude for them, and are a way of repaying one's debt of gratitude for them. By widely imparting the Buddha's teachings, the bodhisattvas pay this debt of gratitude for the teachings they have received from the Buddha.

This is why the bodhisattvas who have sprung up from the earth are great bodhisattvas. People at a lower spiritual stage would consider themselves to at least some degree, thinking, "I myself can be liberated by this practice." These bodhisattvas, however, rise entirely above "self" or "I."

We naturally receive merit by bestowing merit on others, and to deny that we receive such merit would be wrong and narrow-minded. Such narrow-mindedness is found nowhere in the teachings of the Buddha. Therefore, in the previous chapters, the Buddha has taught repeatedly the merits we should give to others by preaching the Lotus Sutra and the merits we simultaneously receive from such practices.

However, with this chapter, we see that the great bodhisattvas, whose virtue is far greater than that of other bodhisattvas, especially those great bodhisattvas taught by the Original Buddha, who have achieved a sense of oneness with the Eternal Original Buddha, have entirely risen above receiving merit. They have concentrated merit within themselves and hence think only of bestowing merit.

Another important teaching here is that even these great bodhisattvas do not neglect such practices as receiving and keeping, reading, reciting, explaining, and copying the Buddha's teachings as practices for their own benefit or improvement. Because they are great bodhisattvas, their understanding of the Dharma must be perfect. But still they endeavor firmly to keep the Buddha's teachings, deepen their understanding by studying them constantly, and devote themselves to the practice of memorizing the teachings by copying them.

This is a valuable admonition, for we are apt to become arrogant when our understanding of the Dharma improves even a little.

Upon hearing the vow made by the bodhisattvas who had sprung up from the earth, the World-honored One nodded contentedly. He said nothing in reply. Then he began his great wordless preaching.

TEXT Thereupon the World-honored One, before Manjushri and the other countless hundred thousand myriad kotis of bodhisattva-mahasattvas who had originally lived in the saha world, as well as of bhikshus, bhikshunis, upasakas, upasikas, gods, dragons, yakshas, gandharvas, asuras, garudas, kimnaras, mahoragas, human and nonhuman beings, and so on, [before] all these beings, revealed his great divine power,

COMMENTARY Bodhisattva-mahasattvas who had originally lived in the saha world. Bodhisattvas who were originally of this saha world, unlike those who sprang up from the earth.
• His great divine power. This refers to a mysterious power not possessed by ordinary human beings. Here it means a supernatural power that comes with enlightenment as a buddha.

TEXT putting forth his broad and far-stretched tongue till it reached upward to the Brahma world, every pore radiating the light of infinite and numberless colors, all shining everywhere throughout all directions of the universe.

COMMENTARY Putting forth his broad and far-stretched tongue till it reached upward to the Brahma world. The Buddha sticks out his long, broad tongue as far as the Brahma heaven.

This expression may strike the reader as peculiar, but it comes from an Indian custom. In ancient India, to put one's tongue out was a symbolic way of insisting on the truth of what one said. Come to think of it, this is quite a logical custom. By showing one's clean, graceful tongue, one insists that one speaks without guile, and not with a double tongue.

Needless to say, the Buddha's tongue is immaculate, and it is so long and broad that it extends to the Brahma heaven. This symbolizes that all the teachings he had imparted were true and that there are not two separate truths but only one. The teachings expounded so far may seem to be divided into two kinds: the teachings of the historical Buddha, called "trace," and those of the Original Buddha. But ultimately these two kinds of teachings are united into one great truth.

People in later ages interpreted the Buddha's mysterious gesture of putting forth his broad and far-stretching tongue as manifesting the doctrine of the "oneness of the two realms in faith" (nimon-shin'itsu). The two realms are the realms of trace and of origin.

At first, in the realm of trace, the Buddha as a dweller in the saha world taught its inhabitants how to live a virtuous life.

Later, however, in the realm of origin, he declared that he is the Eternal Original Buddha, the being originally nonarising and nonperishing. He led people to realize that true liberation comes from awakening to the well-established fact that we receive life from the Original Buddha.

Since there seems to be a great difference between the two realms, some people may have doubts about them, wondering how they should understand them.

Shakyamuni appeared in this world as a manifestation of the Eternal Original Buddha to liberate all living beings. Therefore there is no distinction between the historical Shakyamuni Buddha and the Eternal Original Buddha.

If Shakyamuni had not appeared in this world, we would not have known of the Original Buddha, so we cannot judge which is more welcome and more to be revered - the Buddha of the realm of trace or the Original Buddha.

The conclusion is that the Original Buddha and the Buddha of the realm of trace are ultimately one and that according to the Lotus Sutra our faith should have a single focus. This is the doctrine of the "oneness of the two realms in faith."

The mysterious gesture of the Buddha putting forth his broad and far-stretched tongue until it reached the Brahma heaven thus has this profound meaning.
• Every pore radiating the light of infinite and numberless colors, all shining everywhere throughout all directions of the universe. Shakyamuni Buddha revealed his divine power by radiating a beautiful, multicolored light from his whole body, shining in all directions of the universe, brightening all places simultaneously.

This mysterious phenomenon means that truth is the light that dispels the darkness of delusion.

As I have mentioned before, darkness does not really exist. It is merely an unlighted state. It instantly disappears when light shines. It is just that evanescent.

The same can be said of delusion. Delusion is unreal; only truth is real. Delusion is simply failure to realize truth. Therefore, when we awaken to truth, our delusions immediately disappear.

However, for most people, delusion seems real. Just as they believe in the reality of darkness and fear it, they think delusions and defilements really exist. As they struggle to rid themselves of these, their minds on the contrary become fettered by these imaginary things, and this increases their suffering.

Addressing their misunderstanding, the Buddha taught that people must not be troubled by such a trivial thing as delusion. They have only to realize the truth, and delusions will disappear. The basis of this is the doctrine of the ultimate reality of all things, which includes the doctrine of the Ten Suchnesses.

The realm of trace includes various teachings, and the central one is the doctrine of the Ten Suchnesses, which reveals in detail the real state of all things. Here again is thoroughly explained the teaching of dependent origination, which holds that phenomena occur through the interaction of causes and conditions.

From the realization of this came the awareness that if the human mind is provided with conditions for improvement, it has the potential for buddhahood. On the other hand, if it is provided with conditions for depravity, it can fall into the realm of hells.

The doctrine of the realm of trace explains truth in a philosophical, ethical way. The doctrine of the realm of origin, however, expresses it as the Eternal Original Buddha, who is all-embracing in his warmth and compassion.

This Original Buddha exists from the infinite past and into the eternal future giving life to all beings, hence we are children of the Original Buddha. It is clear that because of this, in our true nature we are one with the Original Buddha.

With the help of the philosophical doctrine of the Ten Suchnesses, only some of the intelligentsia could attain enlightenment. But when ordinary people today hear the teaching that the Original Buddha sustains them, they can understand it, and they respond to it with inexpressible joy.

The realm of trace and the realm of origin are ultimately based on the same truth. In the realm of trace, truth is taught in a more philosophical way; in the realm of origin, in a more religious way.

This doctrine is called "the oneness of the two realms in truth" (nimon-ri'itsu). This profound teaching is shown by the fact that the multicolored light that emanated from the Buddha's whole body dispelled all darkness from the universe.

It is hardly necessary to mention that this light with its innumerable colors symbolizes the infinite teachings of the Buddha. That this light shone forth throughout the universe symbolizes that all teachings emerge from a single truth and that all delusions are extinguished.

TEXT Under all the jewel trees the buddhas, each seated on a lion throne, also in like manner put forth their broad and far-stretched tongues radiating infinite light.

COMMENTARY The buddhas. This indicates the buddhas as separate embodiments who were called to gather from throughout the universe as explained in chapter 11, "Beholding the Precious Stupa."

The fact that the other buddhas put forth their broad and far-stretched tongues and emanated light after Shakyamuni Buddha did, symbolizes that the truth is one. It indicates that all the buddhas have awakened to the same truth, however countless in number they may be.

Truth attracts truth. Each truth resonates with the others. All truths combine as one. The moment Shakyamuni Buddha radiated the sacred light from his whole body, the other buddhas likewise radiated infinite light, which combined into one great light that shone throughout the universe. This is the ideal state sought by practitioners of the Lotus Sutra. It is the state in which all people become buddhas and the saha world becomes identical in essence with the Land of Tranquil Light.

When we read this short passage over and over again with this understanding, we can keenly feel the sacredness of its content.

TEXT While Shakyamuni Buddha and all the [other] buddhas under the jewel trees were revealing their divine powers, hundreds of thousands of years had fully passed.

COMMENTARY This mysterious phenomenon lasting hundreds of thousands of years symbolizes the eternal truth of the buddhas' divine

powers.

TEXT After that they drew back their tongues, coughed simultaneously, and snapped their fingers in unison.

COMMENTARY Coughed simultaneously. All together they cleared their throats in the same instant. The original Chinese characters for "cough" have two meanings. The first is to clear the throat. The second is to chat, to talk together as friends. "Coughed simultaneously" means expounding the teachings and that all the teachings constitute a single truth.

That means that the teachings of the three vehicles are identical with the One Buddha Vehicle, if we refer to it according to the sequence of the teachings expounded by the Buddha throughout his lifetime.

Shakyamuni Buddha imparted first the teaching of skillful means. The teaching of skillful means is definitely the true Dharma, and is in no way a lesser teaching. It was merely a process for expounding the ultimate Dharma, and each teaching of skillful means in its own way is an important Dharma and a valuable teaching.

Applying this process to the teachings of the Lotus Sutra is called nimon-kyo'itsu, or teaching the "oneness of the two realms in doctrine."

To truly comprehend the realm of origin, it is absolutely essential to study the doctrine of the realm of trace. Just as in the study of mathematics, addition must be learned before multiplication, the realm of trace should be mastered before the realm of origin.

A child learning mathematics would not really understand if you start by teaching that two times three is six. First you have to teach addition. You would begin by teaching, for instance, that two plus two plus two equals six. Then the child is ready to understand that multiplying two times three is the same as adding two three times. Even if a child has memorized the multiplication table and can readily say that two times three is six, the child won't understand multiplication unless it knows how to add.

The same is true of religion. Just as children learn mathematics by studying one thing at a time, people learning about a religion should learn religious practices and eliminate their delusions one at a time. This is what I believe.

Just as multiplication, which produces immediate answers, is a true teaching, Buddhism is also a true teaching, which liberates people immediately when they realize that they receive eternal life (the buddha-nature) from the Eternal Original Buddha.

Yet it is difficult to truly appreciate and embrace the wonder of liberation without understanding that spirit­ual progress requires a gradual accumulation of practices.

In the explanation of chapter 18, "The Merits of Joyful Acceptance," faith was shown as multiplication: the object of faith multiplied by the mind of faith equals the result of faith. Even if we immediately teach people from the first that the object of faith must be the Eternal Original Buddha, they will be confused and at a loss. They would be unlikely to develop true faith.

The mental stage of faith by "addition" commences with religious practice, such as learning the doctrine of the Four Noble Truths, through which one awakens to the fact that this world is characterized by suffering and one learns how to overcome suffering. As one learns religious practice through the doctrine of the Eightfold Path, one accumulates practices according to the teachings. Moreover one realizes through the doctrine of the Twelve Causes and Conditions that the most fundamental cause of all human sufferings is ignorance of the Buddha's teachings. One therefore practices contemplation (samadhi) to study and ponder the Buddha Dharma in order to eliminate this ignorance. Then, on the basis of the doctrine of the Six Perfections, one progresses through independent practice and by instructing others. If one accumulates practices by such "addition," then one's mind will become purified and serene, and one will gradually approach buddhahood and the compassionate mind of the Original Buddha.

For those who have understood these doctrines, the Buddha finally reveals the ultimate truth that the Eternal Original Buddha, who is nonarising and nonperishing, sustains all beings. Without understanding these doctrines, a person would find it difficult to believe in this teaching about the Eternal Original Buddha. One who does understand these doctrines will embrace and be grateful for the teaching about the Eternal Original Buddha.

Then in our hearts we realize that if we feel at one with the Buddha, we will naturally come to live according to the Dharma. We fully comprehend that as true liberation.

Therefore, it would be wrong to say that the doctrine of the realm of trace, preached in the first half of the Lotus Sutra, and that of the realm of origin, preached in the second half, are separate teachings. They are the same teaching viewed from two sides, and because they are ultimately two ways of arriving at one and the same liberation, Buddhist scholars since ancient times have interpreted the phrase "coughed simultaneously" as the teaching of the "oneness of the two realms in doctrine."
• Snapped their fingers in unison. This action refers to an ancient Indian custom of making a sound by putting the tips of the thumb and the index or middle finger together and snapping hard.

Shakyamuni Buddha and the other buddhas snapped their fingers to signify their solemn vow to spread the teachings together. They made this vow out of the compassion that moved them to seek the liberation of all living beings. In modern terms we might describe that compassion as a feeling of complete unity with others.

A baby cries for its mother's breast. The mother takes the baby in her arms and gives her breast to it. At this moment the mother transcends any feeling of pity for her baby. She feels the baby's hunger as keenly as if she herself were hungry. Therefore she lifts the crying baby in her arms, with no idea of self, and puts it to her breast. The baby innocently takes the mother's breast as the mother contentedly looks on.

There is a perfect union between mother and baby; nothing separates them. There is no feeling of reserve, and the mother has no feeling of doing her baby a favor. This is pure compassion, in the spirit of the Buddha.

This is the ideal relationship between a preacher and his or her listeners. We can imagine that there must have been such a harmonious relationship between Shakyamuni Buddha and his disciples. As written in the Vimalakirti Sutra, "The diseases of all the living are those of the bodhisattvas," a sense of unity with others is something that the Buddha, teacher of all the bodhisattvas, perfectly made a part of himself. From this we can sense just how devoted the Buddha is to the ideal of human unity.

Having studied the teachings of the Lotus Sutra thus far, we know that all of them amount to the concept of our oneness with others.

It might seem that only we ourselves benefit by ridding our minds of delusion, finding spiritual happiness, and improving ourselves according to the doctrine of the realm of trace. The fact is, however, that our own self-improvement benefits those around us. This is an example of individual practice that results in teaching others. It is often sounder and more effective than preaching with words. As we make spiritual progress and come to practice the Six Perfections, we actively practice to benefit others, and we approach more closely a perfect oneness with others.

When we enter the realm of origin, we are about to experience poignantly the meaning of oneness with others. In other words, we will come to believe that all people are the true children of the Eternal Original Buddha. It means that although people seem to be individuals, we are all basically one.

Human conflicts arise from a lack of that sense of oneness. If everyone felt completely at one with others, then hatred, resentment, scorn, envy, and jealousy would vanish, and this world would inevitably be transformed into the exquisitely beautiful, peaceful Land of Tranquil Light.

Thus the Lotus Sutra ultimately teaches oneness with others, and the spirit of oneness permeates the realms of trace and origin. This is called the concept of nimon-nin'itsu, or the "oneness of the two realms in humanity." All the buddhas snapping their fingers in unison signifies their vow to spread widely this spirit of oneness with others throughout this saha world.

TEXT These two sounds reached through every direction of buddha worlds, all their lands being shaken in six ways.

COMMENTARY These two sounds. This refers to the sounds of the buddhas coughing simultaneously and snapping their fingers in unison.
• All their lands being shaken in six ways. It is held that on six occasions - when the Buddha was conceived, when he was born, when he renounced the world, when he attained enlightenment, when he preached the important Dharma, and when he passed away - the earth shook in six ways (three kinds of form and three kinds of sound).

This means that all beings in heaven and earth were deeply moved. The buddhas coughed simultaneously to declare loudly that all the teachings are based on one great teaching, because the truth preached in the Lotus Sutra is one. They also loudly snapped their fingers in unison to indicate their solemn vow to establish in the world a spirit of human unity, which is the culmination of the Buddha Way. These two sounds reverberated in the ten directions and made all living beings in the universe shake with emotion.

No one shaken with emotion by the teachings can resist practicing them. There are some who only understand the teachings intellectually, storing them in their minds but not practicing them. But whoever shakes with emotion on hearing the teachings will naturally begin practicing them.

What is it that they should practice? Bodhisattva practice, which manifests all the teachings of the Lotus Sutra.

With the doctrine of the realm of trace, the Buddha ultimately urges people to do bodhisattva practice through the Six Perfections. The doctrine of the realm of origin teaches them they are one with the Buddha and all other people. This realization in turn is naturally manifested in the bodhisattva practice of liberating others. This realization develops further into the great bodhisattva practice of seeking the liberation of humanity and the transformation of the saha world into the Land of Tranquil Light.

This is the concept of nimon-gyoitsu, or the "oneness of the two realms in practice." It has a profound meaning expressed in the words "all their lands being shaken in six ways."

The five divine powers of the Tathagata already mentioned are the manifestation of Shakyamuni's and other buddhas' enlightenment, teachings, and vow. The next five divine powers show what result will take place when the manifestation of their enlightenment, teachings, and vow are extended to all living beings in heaven and earth.

To be continued

In this series, passages in the TEXT sections are quoted from The Threefold Lotus Sutra, Tokyo: Kosei Publishing Company, 1975, with slight revisions. The diacritical marks originally used for several Sanskrit terms in the TEXT sections are omitted here for easier reading.


This article was originally published in the July-September 2013 issue of Dharma World.

 
 
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